High School Curriculum

In 2015, the Legislature passed Senate Bill 5433, modifying the original 2005 legislation, requiring the Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State or other tribally-developed curriculum be taught in all schools. The Since Time Immemorial curriculum has been endorsed by all 29 federally recognized tribes.

The resources below support integrating tribal history lessons with your existing high school curriculum.

U.S. History-11th Grade

Unit 1: Our Foundation: Foundational Documents and the Boldt Decision (Boldt I and II)
Unit 2: Industrialization and the Emergence of the United States as a World Power: The Allotment Act
Unit 3: Reform, Prosperity, and Depression: Indian Reorganization Act
Unit 4: World War II, The Cold War, and International Relations: Termination and Relocation
Unit 6: Entering a New Era: Nation-Building, Gaming, and Self-Determination

Contemporary World Problems-12th Grade

Unit 1: Human Rights - Constitutional Issues: A Tribal Perspective
Unit 2: Environmental Issues: The Boldt Decision
Unit 3: Globalization and the Economy; The Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Its Effects on Tribal Sovereignty
Unit 4: Civic Action and the Economy: Nation-Building and Taxation

Ancient Civilization History & World History Resources

The following resources help you integrate tribal history with your Ancient Civilization History and World History courses.


Ancient Civilization History and World History Resources

Native Knowledge 360°-PNW Inquiries - Grades 9-12

Why Do the Foods We Eat Matter?

This inquiry provides perspectives from Native American community members, images, objects, and other sources to help students and teachers understand the important connections between foods and cultures for Native People of the Pacific Northwest. Discover how Native Nations of the Pacific Northwest take action to protect and sustain salmon, water, and homelands.

The Fish Wars: What Kinds of Actions Can Lead to Justice?

This inquiry provides perspectives from Native American community members and their supporters, images, news footage, an interactive timeline, and other sources about an important campaign to secure the treaty rights and sovereignty of Native Nations of the Pacific Northwest. Explore the many actions Native Nations took to address injustices.

Essential Questions

  1. How does physical geography affect the distribution, culture, and economic life of local tribes?
  2. What is the legal status of tribes who "negotiated" or who did not "negotiate" settlement for compensation for the loss of their sovereign homelands?
  3. What were the political, economic, and cultural forces consequential to the treaties that led to the movement of tribes from long-established homelands to reservations?
  4. What are ways in which Tribes respond to the threats and outside pressure to extinguish their cultures and independence?
  5. What do local Tribes do to meet the challenges of reservation life; and as sovereign nations, what do local Tribes do to meet the economic and cultural needs of their Tribal communities?

High School Outcomes

By the time Washington State students leave high school, they will:

  • recognize landmark court decisions and legislation that affected and continue to affect Tribal sovereignty;
  • understand that Tribal sovereignty protects Tribes' ways of life and the development of their nations;
  • understand that Tribal, state, and federal agencies often work together toward the same goal;
  • explain the governmental structure of at least one Tribe in their community; and
  • distinguish between federally and non-federally recognized Tribes.

Alignment with Washington State Learning Standards*

*Refer to unit overview page for standards alignment of specific Since Time Immemorial lessons.

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Except where otherwise noted, "Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State" by Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction in partnership with the Federally Recognized Tribes in Washington State is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. All logos are property of their respective owners.