Menus of Best Practices & Strategies

In 2013, the legislature passed Engrossed Substitute Senate Bill (ESSB) 5946 requiring OSPI to improve the LAP system and K–4 literacy outcomes. OSPI convened expert panels, annually, whose work informed the Menus of Best Practices for math, English Language Arts (ELA), and behavior. The legislature also directed the Washington State Institute for Public Policy (WSIPP) to identify evidence-based and research-based best practices for student interventions.

Through the passage of House Bill (HB) 1208, in 2021, local education agencies (LEAs) are no longer required to align their LAP services with the menus of best practices. However, the ELA menu is still required for K-4 literacy improvement strategies through ESSB 5946. OSPI encourages LEAs to continue using the menus to inform their services.

English Language Arts

The ELA menu offers best practices for students in grades for K-4 (2022) and K–12 (2020). At the heart of the menu is a focus on accelerating student ELA performance. The practices align with Washington State K–12 Learning Standards for English Language Arts (Common Core State Standards).


The math menu offers best practices for students in grades K–12 as well as connections to best practices for all students as aligned with the Washington State K–12 Learning Standards for Mathematics and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.


The behavior menu provides best practices for students in grades K–12 and focuses on addressing behavior needs to improve academic outcomes. The menu aligns with the work of the OSPI Student Discipline Task Force, the Educational Opportunity Gap Oversight and Accountability Committee (EOGOAC), and the Social-Emotional Learning Benchmarks Workgroup. The practices and strategies in the behavior menu also reflect research-based guidance from the U.S. Department of Education on how to improve school climate and discipline.