Middle School Curriculum

In 2015, the Legislature passed Senate Bill 5433, modifying the original 2005 legislation, requiring the Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State or other tribally-developed curriculum be taught in all schools. The Since Time Immemorial curriculum has been endorsed by all 29 federally recognized tribes.

The resources below support integrating tribal history lessons with your existing middle school curriculum.

Washington State History-7th Grade

Unit 1A: Territory and Treaty Making: The Point No Point Treaty
Unit 1B: The Walla Walla Treaty Council of 1855
Unit 1C: Medicine Creek Treaty of 1854
Unit 2: New Technologies and Industries: Hanford Nuclear Reservation's Effects on Indian Country
Unit 3: Contemporary Washington State – The Boldt Decision: 40 Years Later (Boldt I & II)

U.S. History-8th Grade

Unit 1: Fighting for Independence and Framing the Constitution: Revolution and Constitution in Indian Country
Unit 2: Slavery, Expansion, and Removal: Jackson, Marshall, and Indian Removal
Unit 3: Civil War and Reconstruction: Indian Treaties: Goals and Effects
Unit 4: Development and Struggles in the West: The Dawes Act

Ancient Civilization History & World History Resources

The following resources help you integrate tribal history with your Ancient Civilization History and World History courses.

Ancient Civilization History and World History Resources

Essential Questions

  1. How does physical geography affect the distribution, culture, and economic life of local tribes?
  2. What is the legal status of tribes who "negotiated" or who did not "negotiate" settlement for compensation for the loss of their sovereign homelands?
  3. What were the political, economic, and cultural forces consequential to the treaties that led to the movement of tribes from long-established homelands to reservations?
  4. What are ways in which Tribes respond to the threats and outside pressure to extinguish their cultures and independence?
  5. What do local Tribes do to meet the challenges of reservation life; and as sovereign nations, what do local Tribes do to meet the economic and cultural needs of their Tribal communities?

Middle School Outcomes

By the time Washington state students leave middle school, they will:

  • that according to the US Constitution, treaties are "the supreme law of the land" consequently treaty rights supersede most state laws;
  • that Tribal sovereignty has cultural, political, and economic bases;
  • that Tribes are subject to federal law and taxes, as well as some state regulations;
  • that Tribal sovereignty is ever-evolving and therefore levels of sovereignty and status vary from Tribe to Tribe; and
  • that there were and are frequent and continued threats to Tribal sovereignty that are mostly addressed through the courts.

Alignment with Washington State Learning Standards*

*Refer to unit overview page for standards alignment of specific Since Time Immemorial lessons.

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Except where otherwise noted, "Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State" by Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction in partnership with the Federally Recognized Tribes in Washington State is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. All logos are property of their respective owners.