Elementary Curriculum

In 2015, the Legislature passed Senate Bill 5433 modifying the original 2005 legislation, now requiring the Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State or other tribally-developed curriculum be taught in all schools. The use of the Since Time Immemorial curriculum has been endorsed by all 29 federally recognized tribes.

The resources below support the integration of tribal history lessons with your existing elementary curriculum.

Primary Elementary K-3

Pathway 1: Stories and Histories of Our Place
Pathway 2: Honoring the Salmon
Pathway 3: Giving Thanks: A Native American Cultural Tradition

Washington State History-4th Grade

Unit 1: Exploring the Pacific Northwest Prior to Statehood: Tribal Homelands
Unit 2: Living in Washington: Celilo Falls
Unit 3: Being Citizens of Washington: Salmon Recovery and the Boldt Decision

U.S. History-5th Grade

Unit 1: Encounter, Colonization, and Devastation: Tribal Homelands
Unit 2: Independence: Revolution and the U.S. Constitution in Indian Country
Unit 3: Legacy for Us Today: Elwha

Ancient Civilization History & World History Resources

The following resources help you integrate tribal history with your Ancient Civilization History and World History courses.

Ancient Civilization History and World History Resources

Essential Questions

  1. How does physical geography affect the distribution, culture, and economic life of local tribes?
  2. What is the legal status of tribes who "negotiated" or who did not "negotiate" settlement for compensation for the loss of their sovereign homelands?
  3. What were the political, economic, and cultural forces consequential to the treaties that led to the movement of tribes from long-established homelands to reservations?
  4. What are ways in which Tribes respond to the threats and outside pressure to extinguish their cultures and independence?
  5. What do local Tribes do to meet the challenges of reservation life; and as sovereign nations, what do local Tribes do to meet the economic and cultural needs of their Tribal communities?

Elementary Outcomes

By the time Washington state students leave elementary school, they will:

  • Understand that over 500 independent tribal nations exist within the United States today and that they interact with the United States, as well as each other, on a government-to-government basis;
  • Understand tribal sovereignty is "a way that tribes govern themselves in order to keep and support their ways of life";
  • Understand that tribal sovereignty predates treaty times;
  • Understand how the treaties that tribal nations entered into with the United States government limited their sovereignty; and
  • Identify the names and locations of tribes in their area.

Alignment with Washington State Learning Standards

*Refer to unit overview page for standards alignment of specific Since Time Immemorial lessons.

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Except where otherwise noted, "Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State" by Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction in partnership with the Federally Recognized Tribes in Washington State is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. All logos are property of their respective owners.